On Tuesday, October 16, Dr. Thomas Ward and Dr. Claude Perrottet of the Research Institute attended a briefing on Mali at the United Nations Headquarters. The program was sponsored by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). The program featured speakers addressing the human security problems faced by Mali. The program was led by the UN Secretary-General representative in the region, Ms. Mbaranga Gasarabwe. The program opened with Assistant Secretary-General Ursula Mueller who had recently returned from Mali. ASG Mueller’s presentation pointed out that one out of every four Malians, i.e., some 5,000,000 people need humanitarian support due to problems such as drought, food insecurity, malnutrition, and intercommunal violence. Humanitarian operations face challenges because of ongoing incidents of violence both against citizens and NGOs attempting to alleviate humanitarian needs. Funding for humanitarian efforts is at only 1/3 of what had initially been requested. This was followed by a presentation from the Permanent Representative from Mali to the UN, H.E. Mr. Oumar Daou, who addressed the ways in which government Mali is working to address existing crises and he called for the strengthening of cooperation with the United Nations and OCHA. Ms. Gasarabwe expressed hope that evidence of change in Mali will be clearer in about a year.